1.There are three aspects which should be included in teaching a word:
- Word Meanings.
- Word Forms ( spoken, written, word parts).
- Uses of the word : collocations, grammatical functions, constraints on use (where, when, how often we can use this word).
2. Teaching Vocabulary for EFLs effectively:
After reading lots of website introducing the ways/methods to teach vocabulary effectively, I think these below ways are really effective.
Stage 1: Introducing words
Illustration: This is very useful for more concrete words (dog, rain, tall) and for visual learners.
Mime: This lends itself particularly well to action verbs and it can be fun and memorable.
Synonyms/Antonyms/Gradable items: Using the words a student already knows can be effective for getting meaning across.
Definition: Make sure that it is clear (maybe check in a learner dictionary before the lesson if you are not confident). Remember to ask questions to check they have understood properly.
Translation: If you know the students’ L1, then it is fast and efficient. Remember that not every word has a direct translation.
Stage 2: Recognizing new words
Bingo : Make bingo cards with illustrations, and call out each word. For those who can read, do the opposite, make the cards with words, then draw the flashcards from a bag. For teens or adult learners, you can make cards with the definition and call out the words, or vice versa.
Matching : Another type of exercise with countless possibilities. Students may be required to match opposites, synonyms, or a word with its definition, as well as a picture to a word.
Filling in the blank: Hand out a piece of written text (anything from a description, song, letter, to even a short story) with blank spaces that must be filled in from a list of words. You can adapt this to longer texts, and also have longer word lists.
Stage 3: Producing vocabulary:
Mind maps or brainstorming:
Tell students they need to think of words they can use to describe the weather. Write “weather” at the center of a blackboard or whiteboard and circle it. Write every word supplied by students as “rays” that shoot out this circle. They should reply with previously taught words, like “chilly”, “scorching”, or “mild”. You may even have sub-circles shooting off to the side for winter, summer, etc…words. This works great for vocabulary review lessons.
Creating the sentence using the words by students
Here are some links introducing ways/methods to teach vocabulary effectively. You can take a look on these: